مشکل تأمین مواد غذایی در دوره های شیوع کرونا ویروس و پسا کرونا تعهدات قانونی دولت ها و کشورهای توسعه یافته
Perhaps, Covid-19 pandemic influences lifestyle as well as all individual and social elements. The question focusing on the pandemic impact on food systems, food security, and agricultural livelihoods has been captured public attention more and more.
The negative impacts on global food security come on the top of the list. It is nonsense if someone believes that both lives and livelihoods are not at risk from this pandemic. Although the disease is spreading quickly, not only this is no longer a regional issue, it is a global problem requesting a global response as well. Even if the states expect to retreat it eventually, but they cannot give any objective guarantee about how fast this will happen. In addition, such a shock is unusual to affect significant elements of both food supply and demand. We will face risk a looming food crisis, unless measures are taken into account instantly to protect the most vulnerable, keep global food supply chains alive and mitigate the pandemic’s impacts across the food system. Border closures, quarantines, and market, supply chain and trade, therefore, could restrict people’s access to sufficient and nutritious sources of food. While there is enough food for everyone in the world globally, policy makers around the world need to act carefully not to repeat the last mistakes. Hence, the global food system will be assessed in the following days and months. What is of great value is that the most affected will be the poorest and most vulnerable parts of the population. Migrants, the displaced, and those affected by conflict have attracted most attention internationally as well.
Secondly, the food supply chain is a complex network involving producers, consumers and agricultural, processing and storage, transportation and marketing and so on. As the virus spreads, there are new-found advised ways to test food systems at all levels. The spread of the virus can assist it to transport everywhere and influence the increasing rate of the pandemic. Hence, governments and health departments have to perform special protocols to control the virus spread including the chain of food. Quality is decreasing and quantity items are growing down, therefore. In addition, fish markets are noticeable examples to show current problems in the atmosphere of Covid-19. Fisheries have series problems in logistics restricted in transportation, border closures, and the reduced demand in restaurants and hotels. Such a restriction changes market significantly, especially about prices. To explain more, the logistics involving the movement of food not only about the movement of food from point A to point B, the pandemic’s impact on livestock sector due to reduced access to animal feed and slaughterhouses’ diminished capacity as well has been focused by governments and economic officials. Transport restrictions and quarantine measures as observed these days are likely to prevent farmers’ and fishers’ from having instant and on time access to markets, limiting their productive capacities and threating the selling of their produce. This problem is affecting the labor working in the processes of food production like in crops, meat and fish. But in developing countries, they are particularly at risk as Covid-19. It is series concern that the increasing reduction in labor force, and its affect incomes and livelihoods will be challenged regional and economic strategies after controlling the Covid-19 pandemic. Therefore, the need to upgrade international standards for hygiene, working conditions and living facilities on agricultural activities and reconsidering in the light of the pandemic must be taken into account and reconsidered in the following global approaches.
This phenomenon has changed human lifestyle moment by moment. As Mentioned above, food security food and micro-economy has been affected vastly now. There are some pieces of advice to avoid disruptions to the food supply chain and food production. FAO is urging all countries to behave differently to manage the situation nationally and internationally. The states have been called to keep international trade open and take measures protecting their food supply chain. It is organized to obtain inputs such as seeds to assuring smallholder farmers to markets in order to sell their produce meeting their financial resources for their lives and business. Although they are advised to focus on the needs of the most vulnerable, and scale up social protection programs including cash transfers, they are called upon keeping their domestic food supply value chains alive and functioning active. Academics and economists are recommended to continue to flow to smallholders; animal feed to livestock breeders; and aquaculture inputs to fish farmers by taking all necessary precautions, seeds and planting materials. These recommendations cannot ignore the maintenance of agriculture activities. To perform these strategies, the international cooperation as well as comprehensively national activities is mentioned as a key. It is worth mentioning whereas that there is enough food in the world to meet human needs throughout states, the local crises have not avoided the lack of a proper network to distribute food for all, if cooperation and open trade assist the states and international organizations to be used collectively. It is accepted as consensus among states and global community.
Having cited above points, I believe in the idea that people should comprehend the new status affecting their daily lives called: “Post Covid-19 Life”. It seems immediately countries should meet food needs of vulnerable populations programs so as to continue delivering school meals even when schools are shut. Of course, some measures including ensuring emergency food need, adjusting and expanding social protection programs are recommended seriously. In addition, it is a clear request from governments to gain efficiencies and try to reduce trade-related costs. Reducing food waste and loses as well as resolving logistics bottlenecks can be considered additionally, for example. The necessity of the reduction of import tariffs when governments think is appropriate to minimize, for example, can be useful to strengthen citizens and local industries to be manage themselves in front of the spread of Covid-19. It is necessary to avoid any trade restrictions considered beneficially to keep food and feed supplies, as well as those of agricultural and fishery inputs, from worsening local conditions. Policy makers must monitor all measures approved by authorized persons in national, regional and international scales.
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